He indicated to reporters that he disapproved of the commission's "taking a stand of this kind on an issue" that Congress could be expected to consider shortly. The possibility that the White House would become involved in the controversy was raised by President Nixon at his news conference last week.
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Asked whether he would support the commission's proposed ban, he said he had not had an opportunity to study it. Finch, secretary of Health, Education and Welfare. He said the action indicates a number of federal agencies have the power to deal with the problem of cigarette advertising "in their own way. The Tobacco Institute called the proposal to bar cigarette commercials from the airwaves "arbitrary in the extreme" given the present state of scientific knowledge about smoking and health.
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It also called the commission's action "an obvious threat to usurp the congressional function," and it denied there is demonstrated evidence of a causal link between smoking and disease. Wasilewski, in speaking for the NAB, said the commission's "unilateral action" was improper "in view of the comprehensive federal program currently under deliberation by the Congress. Not only do we deplore the assumption of such power by the commission, we deny that such power exists.
According to data gathered by the Television Bureau of Advertising and the Radio Advertising Bureau, television has been a principal source for cigarette -advertising spending. In , the year of heaviest broadcast spending by tobacco companies, That put television and radio advertising first and third as the tobacco companies' media choices.
Magazines came in between, with Such outlays obviously have also provided major blocks of broadcast revenue. The leading exponent of the theory that cigarette losses could be replaced appeared to be CBS Inc. Most discounts have since been eliminated by all three major TV networks, but CBS sources indicated last week that they still thought cigarette losses could be retrieved.
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They and other subscribers to this theory noted that most cigarette advertising on the TV networks is in what one official called "the best evening spots and professional sports " -periods so desirable that in many cases, they said, there is a waiting line of advertisers wanting to get in. At the opposite extreme, an official of another network took the position that cigarette billings would not be easy to enue.
In radio during , tobacco -product spending ranked fourth among categories of network advertisers and eighth among spot advertisers food products led network spending; automotive products, spot spending. One adhering to this view noted that cigarette advertisers "buy early and pay top money" because they buy into the higher priced shows.
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With the tobacco makers as the nucleus of early buyers, it was reasoned, networks can maintain their price structures on unsold time until closer to the start of a new season. But without a big chunk of business on the books early, they might, in the words of one authority, "tend to panic in the face of all the wait -and -see advertisers and reduce their rates early.
There seemed to be somewhat more general agreement on the idea that tobacco companies, even if cigarette advertising were banned, would tend to hold on to many if not most of their network "franchises" and use the time to promote nontobacco products that most of them have been acquiring at an accelerating pace since the surgeon - general's report.
There was also speculation that some of the companies' spot schedules might similarly be used for noncigarette products if cigarette advertising is banned or diminishes for any reason. If the FCC ban is enacted, with only cigarette advertising prohibited, there would thus be some tobacco -product advertising left.
On a percentage basis, was the peak year for broadcast cigarette advertising. Estimates for indicate a slight decline. How cigarette and other tobacco advertising dollars were spent in extent a trend in this direction is already apparent. For example, one station, wrlx tv New York, reported after a check last Thursday that although it carries "a lot" of Reynolds Tobacco Co. Many broadcast advertising sources noted that cigarette billings have represented a diminishing share of broadcast revenues in the past several years see above.
The tobacco companies tended to refer all questions about the FCC's move to the Tobacco Institute, but there was wide- ranging -and sometimes conflicting- speculation about what tack they would take in direct response to the FCC's action. Some sources speculated that in view of all the controversy that has raged since , cigarette makers would realistically not be too concerned at losing access to TV and radio -so long as all of them lost access.
This theory was elaborated in other speculation that the tobacco companies need to have the labeling law -the requirement of a health warning on packages- extended "to protect them against cancer suits" and would be willing to ease out of television voluntarily in return for congressional renewal of the law. Some reports said tobacco representatives had already sounded out some congressional leaders on such a plan. Still other speculation expected the tobacco makers to wage an all -out battle on any front necessary to block the FCC move.
Whether broadcasters in any significant number would voluntarily renounce cigarette advertising was also subject to speculation, although the consensus appeared to be that few would. One source surmised that some stations that have little or no cigarette business might come out against such advertising on the air but that few or no major stations would be apt to do so. Friendly wrote that Dr. Stanton lost the "first round," probably because of pressure from the radio division and partly because the birth of CBS had been associated with tobacco interests, but he also expressed the view that Dr.
Stanton might still be identified with the limitation or rejection of cigarette advertising on TV if the government didn't do it first. At least one other network has been said recently to have considered banning or limiting cigarette advertising, but these reports have not been confirmed. But as the commission itself stresses, the question of prohibiting cigarette advertising is one on which 'Congress must be the final arbiter'.
Mutual issued no formal statement, but President Robert R. Pauley said in response to questions that he thought the FCC move was "dead wrong. Pauley said, "but it is dead wrong to ban the advertising of a legal product. The Radio Advertising Bureau, through President Miles David, opposed "product regulation through media regulation" and said the FCC's plan would discriminate against broadcasting, aid other media and still leave cigarette companies free to introduce new brands by other, though more expensive, means.
But, Mr. David added: "If a total embargo of tobacco adver- don't believe tising comes -and we this should be accepted without major industry effort -radio is in the best position it has been in for the past 10 years. We are no longer as heavy per - centagewise as we were in tobacco national billings. We have developed many account categories recently.
You are dealing in this case with a major industry that is the basis of the economy of five or six states. With Congress in that position, pragmatically it's going to be difficult to get through. God knows the fatalities from liquor," he added.
He termed the proposal a "tremendous surprise. Everybody thought the FTC would do something. Granted these concessions, he suggested, the FCC would leave cigarette billings alone. Another account supervisor on a tobacco account at a large agency saw little prospect of self- policing by the industry. He believes there will be no voluntary restriction of time periods for adult viewing hours anyway - "these are our prospects. John Wakefield, director of social research at Christie Hospital, Manchester, England, reported to the World Conference on Smoking and Health in September that his research before and after Great Britain's August ban on televised cigarette advertising showed a slight decline from Similar increases were reported in Italy, where all.
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In England, Television magazine reported in November that moves to a second -degree manslaughter charge even though you didn't do anything because they might get you on first - degree murder? The cancer society called the proposal an important first step toward achieving the society's goal of "the elimination of cigarette advertising in all media. Citing the health hazards of smoking as the basis for its action and the public interest as its authority, the commission proposed a rule to prohibit broadcasters from accepting cigarette corn - mercials.
The vote was 6 -to -1 with Commissioner James J. Wadsworth the lone dissenter. The commission made it clear, however, that the main arena for the battle now shaping up over the proposed ban will be Congress. The commission noted that the Cigarette Labeling Act of , which bars federal or state were afoot to force tobacco companies to adhere to absolute limits on promotional spending after denial of television as a marketing medium resulted in a red -hot coupon war among brands, some of which had been introduced after the TV ban -a feat that some marketers had held would be impossible once the ban was instituted.
Voluntary limits were tried previous to the government's move to mandate spending limits, but the agreements broke down in the competitive battle for consumers. The losers in the incentive -gift war also wanted out but the winning brand would not agree to stop issuing coupons. Congress, the commission added, should know what the agency intends to do if the act is not extended.
The FCC also said that "Congress must be the final arbiter of this matter and must signal what action is to be taken.
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Noting that broadcasters do not accept hard -liquor advertising, it asked: "Why, then, should this same industry accept cigarette commercials in the face of the public- health findings? Chairman Rose! Hyde, at a heavily attended news conference at which the rulemaking was announced, made it clear the commission would not accept half -way measures. It said there is considerable evidence "implicating tar -nicotine in smoking diseases and death by smoking.
He also said the PHS found that one -third of all deaths of men between the ages of 35 and 60 is related to cigarette smoking. Rogers, Jr. Collins to its staff. Collins has won many citations during his 18 Baltimore years for skillful, courageous reporting and perceptive writing.
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